Monday, April 5, 2010

Poisonous plants around us updated

Updated on 19-04-2016
Plants look innocent but some contain many harmful substances .These substances produced under natural conditions may cause illness or death  to human beings and animals. Poisonous plants are found in higher plants and in lower groups also. Only angiosperms are mentioned here. Most of the poisonous plants are wild in origin.These plants are never eaten by animals.
Objective: The main objective is to provide information on the harmful plants. This will help us to be cautious with the plants. These plants are available throughout Andhra Pradesh and in Southern India.
When swallowed, toxic substances of plants interfere with normal body functions. Each group of poison acts differently. The severity of poisoning in man depends on quantity of poison ingested, health and nutritional status and age of the victim. Toxic substances in plants exist in a variety of forms. Chemically most of them are alkaloids, polypeptides, amines, glycosides, oxalates, resins and other phyto-toxins.
Depending upon the toxic effect they are grouped into following categories:
Highly toxic or lethal plants: These plants may cause serious illness or death. If ingested please immediately rush to the hospital with the plant sample or information.
Name of the plant: Abrus precatorious L.,
Family: Fabaceae
Common Name: crab’s eye, Indian liquorice, Ratti seesds, గురు గింజలు, గురువింద 
Toxic part: Seed
Toxic substance: Abrin. It is a ribosome - inactivating protein, thus blocks protein synthesis and it is one of the most deadly plant toxins known. A dose of 0.1-1 mug/kg of body weight is fatal to humans.
SymptomsThe toxin is released only after breaking of seeds. Infusion of seed extracts can cause eye damage, conjunctivitis and even blindness after contact. The major symptoms of poisoning are acute gastroenteritis with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea leading to dehydration, convulsions, and shock. Dehydration, as well as direct toxicity on the kidneys, could result in oliguria that might progress to death in uraemia (William Boericke, 1999; Inchem, 2004).
Occurence: Found in waste places and in forest)
Abrus Precatorius seeds
Name of the plant: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold 
Common name:Yellow oleander;  పచ్చ గన్నేరు
Family: Apocyanaceae
Toxic part: Fruit (seed)
Toxic substance: The main toxins are the cardenolides called thevetin A and thevetin B; others include peruvoside, neriifolin, thevetoxin and ruvoside  glycosides .
Symptoms: They produce gastric and cardiotoxic effects. One fruit can cause death of an adult. Nausea,vomiting, heart stimulation, Convulsion and death.
Occurrence: The plant is cultivated in gardens, Lord Shiva temples, and in open forests.


Name of the plant : Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don,
Common name: Madagascar Periwinckle, Vinca, Cape periwinkle, rose periwinkle, rosy periwinkle, Bright eyes, and "old-maid".; Billa ganneru, nithya kalyani బిళ్ల గన్నేరు, నిత్యకళ్యాణి(Tel.).   
     Family: Apocyanaceae
Toxic part: All parts are extremely toxic if consumed orally by humans;
Toxic substance: The substances vinblastine and vincristine and many other alkaloids.
    Symptoms:  renal- hepato- and hematopoeitic toxicity at the tested doses Nausea,vomiting, heart stimulation, Convulsion and death.
Occurrence: Exotic. Widely cultivated as an ornamental; and runs wild on roadsides.
Catharanthus roseus
Name of the plant : Catharanthus pusillus (Murray) G.Don
Common name: Tiny periwinkle (Eng.); Verrimirapa, Gulvidiవెర్రిమిరప, గులివిడి (Tel.).
Family: Apocyanaceae
Toxic part: All parts are toxic if consumed orally by humans
Toxic substance: alkaloids
Symptoms: Same as Catharanthus roseus
Occurrence: A weed.
Catharanthus pusillus
Name of the plant : Cestrum nocturnumL.
Common name: Night queen;రేరాణి 
Family: Solanaceae
Toxic part: Leaves and berries
Toxic substance: Atropine, anticholinergic alkaloids, in leaves; solanine and inunripe fruit
Symptoms: Effects Asthma patients if inhales the strong odour; and if ingested orally it causes gastrointestinal, neurological symptoms.

Occurrence: Exotic. Cultivated in gardens.  
Cestrum nocturnum
Name of the plant:Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb) Benth ex Hook.f .
Common name: Garari, karra ;Vodisi, vadisaaku, Korisi వొడిసి ఆకు, కొరిసి 
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Toxic substance: Cleistanthin A,B,  C, D,;polyols in tanins, Beta sitosterol,Collinusin
Toxic part::Fruits and leaves are highly poisonous,more effective if eaten with jaggery. Young fruits resemble amla fruits.
Symptoms: Ingestion of 1-2 leaves or 1or 2 fruits can kill a person. It is a quick poison. Cardiac arythms, hepotension, nervousness. Neurotoxin also. No known antidote is available.
Occurrence:  Common in scrub forests
Cleistanthus collinus
Name of the plant: Nerium oleander L.,
Common name: Pink oleander; ఎర్ర గన్నేరు, కస్తూరి
Family: Apocyanaceae
Toxic part: Entire plant, especially leaves.
Toxic substance: Nerin, oleandrin, folinerio. Oleandrin and oleandrigenin, the cardiac glycosides are the toxic principle. 
Symptoms: A single leaf is sufficient to kill an adult. Affects gastrointestinal system, the heart, and the central nervous system Nausea, vomiting,dizziness, slowed pulse, irregular heartbeat, dialation of pupils drowsiness, unconsciousness, paralysis of legs and finally death. The sap if in contact with the skin can cause blistering, irritation and soreness. 
Occurrence:  Cultivated in gardens. 
Nerium oleander
Name of the plant: Datura metel; D.stramonium and, D.innoxia
Common name: Angel's trumpet, devil's trumpet, black trumpet; ఉమ్మెత్త
Family: Solanaceae.
Toxic part: Entire plant,especially seeds. 20 seeds are sufficient to cause poisoning in an adult. Seeds are sedative and intoxicating in large doses.
Toxic substance: Hyoscyamine,hyoscine,atropine, Scopolamine, and other glycosides.
Symptoms: Dry mouth, thirst, nausea, vomittinng, diarrhea, delirium and convulsions. Finally death if not treated.
Occurence: It is found on road side in waste places.
Datura plant and seeds
 Name of the plant:Gloriosa superba L

Common name: Flame lily, fire lily, tiger claw, gloriosa lily, glory lily, superb lily, climbing lily, and creeping lily ;నాభి , నాగేటి గడ్డ
Family: Colchicaceae
Toxic part: This plant is a beautiful twiner with attractive red flowers. Rhizome is the underground stem. It looks like a plough; tubers are highly poisonous.
Toxic principle: Colchicine
Symptoms: One tuber is sufficient to kill an adult.
Occurence: Common in the foot of hills.
Gloriosa superba
Name of the plant: Ricinus communis L
Common name: Castor bean; ఆముదము
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Toxic part: Seed
Toxic substance: Ricin. It is as powerful as HCN and as potent as snake poison.
Symptoms: When the raw seeds are eaten it will cause death.
3-10 seeds can cause death in children. Nausea, vomiting, burning of mouth, diarrohea, stomachache,convulsions dullness of vision, anaemia,and death in 1-10 days.
Occurence: Found along railway lines, waste places. It is a cultivated crop. It is cultivated for the oil from the seeds.
Ricinus communis seeds
 
Name of the plant:Strychnos nux-vomica L
Common name: Nux Vomica, Poison Nut, semen strychnos and quaker buttons Nux-vomica ;Mushti విష ముష్టి
Family: Loganiaceae
Toxic part: Seeds; stem bark is used as fish poisoning.
Toxic Principle: Strychnine is the poisonous principle, lethal dose 30-120mg.
Symptoms:Nausea, headache, vomiting  dropsy and kidney failure . 10-20 seeds can kill an adult. Relatively slow poison.
Occurence:Common in scrub forests


Strychnos nuxvomica seed 
Name of the plant: Jatropha curcas L.
Common name: Bio diesel plant; Physic nut, Jatropha, Barbados nut;పెద్ద నేపాళం,అడవి ఆముదం 
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Toxic part: Seed
Toxic substance: Jatropin
Symptoms: 2-10 seeds can cause death in an adult. Nausea,
diarrohea ,convulsions and death.
Occurrence: It is cultivated for seeds, and also run wild.

Jatropha curcas

Many members of Euphorbia genus are quite poisonous, due to the presence of phorbol esters.
Name of the plant: Euphorbia cyathophora  L
Common name: Poinsettia
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Toxic part: Entire plant, latex
Toxic substance: Not known
Symptoms: A small twig can cause death in children. Severe irritation in mouth, throat& stomach.
Occurence: Found cultivated in the gardens.
Euphorbia cyathophora

Name of the plantEuphorbia tithymaloides  L
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Local name: Devil's Backbone,కంట పాల 
Toxic part: Entire plant, latex
Toxic substance: Not known
Symptoms: A small twig can cause death in children.Severe irritation in mouth, throat& stomach.
Occurence: Found cultivated in the gardens and in households as hedge /border plant .
Euphorbia tithymaloides

Plant name: Strychnos potatorum L.f., 
Common names: Clearing nut; Chillaginja చిల్లగింజ (Tel.).
Family: Loganiaceae
Toxicity: Seeds are  toxic in doses of 2g per kg body weight. If the seeds are crushed and eaten they are toxic. 
But Seeds as whole are used to clear turbid water.
Toxic principle: : diaboline (major alkaloid) and its acetate is the principle chemical. 
Symptoms: Same as Strychnos nuxvomica
Occurence:Common in scrub forests.


Strychnos potatorum
Minor toxicity causing plants:Ingestion of these plants may cause minor illnesses such as vomiting or diarrhea. If ingested in large quantities it may also cause death.
Name of the plant: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica 
Family: Cannabaceae
Common name: గంజాయి , భంగ్, దీన్నుండి Hashish అనే మత్తు మందును చేస్తారు. ఇవన్నీ నిషేధింపబడిన మత్తు మందులు. ఈ మొక్కలను సాగు చేయడం చట్ట రీత్యా నేరము. 
వీటిని సేవిస్తే నాడీ వ్యవస్థ దెబ్బ తిని మరణిస్తారు. 
Cannabis sativa, గంజాయి మొక్క 

Name of the plant: Lantana camera L.
Common name: Wild sage; పులి కంప
Family: Verbenaceae.
Toxic part: Berry and leaves.
Toxic substance: Triterpenoids and a sterol in leaves
Lancamrone and oleanonic acid is also Present in leaves. hepatogenic
Symptoms: 2 -4 fruits cause death in children. It is hepatogenic.Leaves induce photosensitization and jaundice circulatory collapse and finally death
Occurance: It is a way side common weed, and used for fencing also.
Lantana fruits
Name of the plant: Argemone mexicana Linn.
Family: Papaveraceae.
Common name: Mexican poppy, Mexican prickly poppy, cardosanto ; బలురక్కసి,బ్రహ్మదండి,పిచ్చి కుసుమ 
Toxic part: Entire plant, especially seeds.
Toxic substance:Argemone oil contain Sanguinarine
( an alkaloid) & dihydrosenguinarine.
Symptoms: Wheat flour contaminated with Argemone seeds cause acute inflammation of gastro intestinal tract. Several epidemics occurred in India due to argemone oil poisoning. People were affected with dropsy, glaucoma followed by blindness. Argemone poisoning cause non inflammatory bilateral edema of legs associated with diarrhea, cardiac failure and sometimes even death. It also produces abortion, vomiting anemia and alopecia. Some times the oil from the argemone seeds is used to adulterate edible oils especially Mustard oil and Sesamum oils. . Beware of this adulteration.
Occurence: It is found in road side and also in waste places. 


Occurrence:  Cultivated in gardens. Occurance: Common in scrub 

Poisonous yet edible plants:


Plant name: Papaver somniferum 
Common name: గసగసాలు (ఇవి విత్తనాలు ) దీని కాయ నుండి తీసేది  నల్లమందు (Opium, morphine) నల్ల మందు ముందు మత్తు కలిగించి క్రమంగా చావుకు దగ్గర చేస్తుంది . గసాలు కూడా అధిక మొత్తము లో ప్రమాద కరమే! 
The seeds in large quantities is used to kill prisoners in olden days.
Plant name: Manihot esculenta Crantz
Common name: Cassava, Tapioka; కర్ర పెండలము, ఆళ్వారిగడ్డలు 
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Toxicity: Fresh uncooked tubers are toxic.
Tubers are edible when the cyanide is removed after soaking and long cooking.
Manihot esculenta tubers
 Red kidney bean (rajma);lima bean, soya bean, kesari dal are all poisonous if not soaked overnight and cooked.
Green potatoes: contain solanine a toxic alkaloid. Solanum nigrum  Solanum villosum plants except ripe fruits are mildly toxic, 
  Areca catechu -betel nut, వక్కలు, contain alkaloids and phenols if swallowed cause mouth cancers.
Nicotiana tabacum -Tobacco, పొగాకు, తంబాకు All parts except seeds are toxic. Ingestion in higher doses causes death. 1mg of nicotine per kilo gram of body weight is lethal. Infusion of 30 grams of tobacco or inhalation of 1gram of tobacco snuff is lethal.Nicotine is the principle toxin. Tobacco in the form of cigars, Cigarettes, Bidis, Gutka or chewing of tobacco is lethal; cause cancer.
Tobacco plant
 Seeds of Annona muricata- Common nameSour sop,లక్ష్మణ ఫలం ,
Seeds are neurotoxic; if ingested they cause neurodegenerative disease.
  Annona reticulata-(Custard apple, wild-sweetsop, bull's heart, bullock's-heart, or ox-heart- రామాఫలం);The kernels are very toxic. Sap from cut branches is acrid and irritant and can severely injure the eyes.
 Annona squamosa- (Custard apple, sugar apple; సీతాఫలం) Seeds are toxic.

Alocasia macrorrhizos -Elephant ear taro-పిచ్చిచేమ; 
For image click:https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/26064306051/in/album-72157666416997782/ 
  
Colocasia esculenta -Arum, Green Taro, Cocoyam, taro-చేమ tubers are mildly toxic. long cooking is necessary.
For image click: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/26038113102/in/album-72157666416997782/
Other plant poisons: 
Name of the plant: Cryptostegia grandiflora R.Br
Family: Asclepiadaceae
Common name: Rubber vine రబ్బర్ తీగ
Toxic part: Entire plant, especially leaves and thick latex,
Toxic substance: Glycosides in the latex.

Symptoms: 10 leaves are sufficient to kill an animal or a person. Dry mouth, irritation in the stomach nausea and finally death. It is a native of Africa, introduced for the beautiful flowers. Found in low lying areas near canals.
Cryptostegia grandiflora

Aristolochia bracteolata-Pipe vine, Worm killer; ఈశ్వరి, గాడిదగడప
For image click: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/26130811335/in/album-72157666450915141/   
 and Aristolochia indica - Indian Birth wort; తెల్ల ఈశ్వరి 
For image click: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/26130966475/in/album-72157666450915141/
 These two plants are potential carcinogen, and nephro-toxic. never consume in large quantities.
Some wild tubers such as 
1. Scadoxus multiflorus-Common name:  Blood lily, blood flower, Katherine-wheel, ox tongue lily, and powder puff lily, May flower
2.  Ledebouria revoluta (L.f.) Jessop- Common name:  South Indian squill కాచుగడ్డ, అడవి తెల్లగడ్డ  tubers toxic if eaten.In large doses bulbs are emetic and may cause cardiac depression.
Ledebouria revoluta
3.  Drimia indica (Roxb.) Jessop; Drimia nagarjunae (Hemadri & Swahari) Anand kumar-Wild Onion ; Adavivulli  అడవిఉల్లి-If taken in excess, the bulb is a narcotic, acrid and poisonous causing nausea, slow, painful urination, and bloody urine.
Drimia tuber

Fresh tubers of Dioscorea oppositifolia, and other species are toxic.
Dioscorea tubers

Hippeastrum striatum- bulbs affect stomach, shock and coma.
For image click: https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/26034907562/in/album-72157666493612996/
Seeds of Erythrina, Canavalia, Crotalaria,Senna, Rhynchosia, Tephrosia and many other wild bean plants are toxic.
Seeds of Canavalia
Seeds of Erythrina

Fruits of Citrulus colocynthus, Diplocyclos palmatus, Corollocarpus epigeus,and  Trichosanthes tricuspidata are poisonous if ingested in large quantities.
Citrulus colocynthus
Diplocyclos palmatus
Trichosanthes tricuspidata
Fruits of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica  తురక వేప ,వేప,
Melia azedarach 
3. Dermatitis: The juice, sap, or thorns of these plants may cause a skin rash or irritation. or ingestion of plant part may cause irritation of mouth, throat, skin resulting in throat swelling, breathing difficulties, burning pain, and stomach upset.
Occular poisons: Excoecaria agallocha;Calotropis gigantea ; Asclepias curassavica: They cause permenant or tempporary loss of vision. Excoeria sap is yellow and acrid, cause temporary blindness. తిల్ల  మొక్క నుండి పసుపు రంగులో వున్న ద్రవం వస్తుంది, ఇది కళ్ళల్లో పడితే కొంతసేపు కళ్ళు కనిపించ కుండా పోతాయి 
White milky latex is the poisonous substance. జిల్లేడు పాలు కళ్ళల్లో పడితే ఎటువంటి మంట , నొప్పి ఉండదు, కానీ కొద్ది సేపటికి కంటి చూపు తగ్గడం మొదలై చివరకు పూర్తిగా చూపు పోతుంది.  దీనికి ఎటువంటి మందులుగాని , ఆపరేషన్ గాని పనిచేయవు ; కాబట్టి జిల్లేడు తో జాగ్రత్త గా ఉండాలి. 
Excoecaria agallocha
 
Calotropis gigantea

Contact dermatitisParthenium hysterophorus ;Tragia involucrata , Mucuna atropurpurea, Mucuna prurience;    Dalecamphea indica 
sap of Mango, Buchnnia,
Irritation of mouth, swelling of tongue, burning pain, difficulty in breathing.
Caladium species; Dieffenbachia Dumb cane; Colocasia; Agave species; Epiprinum;   
Dieffenbachia bowmani
Epiprinum aureum
Caladium bicolor
Colocasia esculenta
Agave cantala
Agave americana

For the images please click https://www.flickr.com/photos/140231536@N03/?
 

 If anyone  consume the toxic plant or part they should be contacted a hospital emergency ward immediately.
విషపు మొక్క తిన్నట్టు తెలిస్తే వెంటనే ఆస్పత్రి కి తీసుకెళ్ళి వైద్యుని సంప్రదించ వలెను . స్వంత వైద్యము , చిట్కాలు సురక్షితము కావు . ఇది  ప్రాణాలు కాపాడుకోడానికి వ్రాసిన  వ్యాసమే
Educate your children and neighbors on the toxic effects of plants. Save your children from this toxic plants. 
  

                                                                     To be continued........  
   



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Common name:
 rests.Occurance: . Common in hill slopes and as a weed in cutivated dry lands.  m

17 comments:

  1. excellent work. i hope this work is very useful for common man also

    ReplyDelete
  2. this type of work s impose interest to taxonomists

    ReplyDelete
  3. Superb information but lack one more that is jilledu ..the milk on contact with eyes will make blind permanently ..no more surgeries/ operations help.

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  4. thank u
    i m doctor i got this idea about plants important to me in hospital for management
    but actually photos should be more elaborating so as to make proper diagnosis
    but thank s

    ReplyDelete
  5. I WANT MORE INFORMATION RELATED TO KATERI PLANT

    ReplyDelete
  6. thank you friend you given me a excellent information about plants. thank you very much

    ReplyDelete
  7. Lantana camera Linn.var aculeata. i have eaten this plant leaves and fruits why am still alive

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  8. Madam..
    Pl keep posting ur valuable information on medicinal plants..
    With the the similar kind of intention i started my blog..since i dnt have any authenticated degrees n my knowledge is limited i stopped posting in my blog.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Some details about marulu teega pls
    devandla@yahoo.com

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  10. Mam can you give some details about maralu teega plant
    Stepping on this plant will effect brain and he will be roaming around that area for some time after forgetting the way
    My mother's father worked as teacher at vendodu near gudur nellore
    He is to face this prolem at forest there
    devandla@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. There is no such plant. No such effect of any plant. It is a myth. Please contact a psychiatrist.

      Delete
  11. Hello Mam,
    Can Strychnos potatorum seeds cause death ?Can you ellaborate please ?
    kumar.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. It is given in the para; it should not be crushed and eaten.

      Delete
  12. It is stated that Vinca roseus/ Catharathus roseus is toxic or highly poisonous. In Italy is is called the plant of death. Yet it said to cure so many diseases. What a contradiction! How can someone prepare it at home in order to avoid toxicity and which parts of the pkants are used for treating which diseases. If the leaves, flowers, stem and roots are dried and then milled into a powder separately and stored under room temperature in sealed containers (eg. Polyethylene satchels, glass bottles or tins with lids on, are the health benefits lost and what is the shelf life under normal room temperature (20 -30 degrees centigrade)?

    ReplyDelete