Tuesday, March 2, 2010

Some  Common Medicinal Plants of Andhra Pradesh

మందు మొక్కల వాడకం లో మోతాదు , ఉపయోగించే విధము ప్రధాన మైనవి. కావున ఈ పాటము చదివిన వారు ప్రయోగము  లు చేయరాదు.  మోతాదు ఎక్కువ అయినపుడు ప్రమాదములు సంభవించ వచ్చును.
Tinospora cardifolia
Tinospora cordifolia  తిప్ప తీగ. Fy: Menispermaceae
 Used plant part: Dried stem pieces (ఎండిన ముదురు  కాండపు ముక్కలు)
 Identification: The stem is covered by thin papery, cream white bark, bearing raised scars of lenticells. The T.S of stem shows a yellowish wood with radially arranged wedge shaped vascular bundles
Chemicals constituents: Contains adaptogenic constituents –diterpene compounds tinosporone, tinosporic acid, cordifolisides  and vitamin A to E, and syringen. The yellow alkaloid, berberine, Giloin. crude Giloininand, are also isolated., Picrotene and bergenin were also found in the plant. It contains the bitter principle, tinosporaside. (a glucoside)
Uses: It is a tonic, and immune booster. (రోగ నిరోధక వ్యవస్తను పటిష్ట పరుస్తుంది). improves the performance of macrophages (defensive WBC)
It protects liver from poisonous substances. (కాలేయాన్ని రక్షిస్తుంది. విష పదార్ధాలను తొలగిస్తుంది). It is anti pyretic  (జ్వర నివారిణి).and antispasmodic  (కండరాలు బిగుసుకు పోకుండా నివారిస్తుంది). , anti allergic (అలెర్జీ లను నివారిస్తుంది).and anti-inflamatory  (వాపు నివారిణి). It is used to prevent rheumatism (కీళ్ళ వాతం).and jaundice  (కామెర్లు)    .Stem extract is known as Tippa sattu in Telugu. It is diuretic  (మూత్ర వర్ధకి )  and stomachic  (జీర్ణకారి). It used for the treatment of diabetes. (మధుమేహం) It is also used for the treatment of liver disorders.(కాలేయ వ్యాధులు.)  

Ocimum sanctum
Ocimum sanctum  తులసి. Fy: Lamiaceae
 Used plant part: Leaves
Identification: Aromatic herbs , young stems 4 angled, young stem and flowers are purple colored.thyrsus inflorescence.
Chemical Constituents and Components : Main constituents of basil are tannins, alkaloids and volatile oil. Oil mainly consists of eugenol,70%, methyl eugenol 20%, carvacol  urosolic acid, rosmarinic acid, thymol, linalool, methyl chavicol, citral and beta-caryophyllene and Oleanolic acid.
Uses: It is anabolic, hypoglycemic , smooth muscle relaxant, cardiac, antidepressant, antifertility agent, adaptogenic and immunomodulator .  Essential oil of Tulsi have antibacterial,antifungal and antiviral properties.It inhibites the growthof E coli, B.anthracis, M.tuberculosis etc. It's antitubercular activity is one-tenth the potency of streptomycin and one-fourth that of isoniazid. It is anti pyretic, anthelmintic and stomachic.useful in stomach spasms, cough and cold, It is useful to treat skin diseases. It scavenges free radicles. Leaf juice is used to treat ear ache. Seeds are demulscent. The root is used to treat insectbites and leeches.
తులసి ఆకులను ప్రధానంగా శ్వాస కోస వ్యాధుల కు, చర్మ వ్యాధులకు ఔషధం గా వాడతారు. జ్వరాన్ని తగ్గించ డానికి, కడుపు నొప్పి కి ,చెవి పోటుకు కీటకాల కాటులకు మందుగా ఉపయోగిస్తారు. ఇది రక్తం లో కొలెస్ట్రాల్ తగ్గించ డానికి , స్వేచ్చా అయానులను తగ్గించే యాంటి ఆక్సిడెంటు గా ఉపయోగిస్తారు.       

Piper longum
Piper longum పిప్పళ్ళు Fy: Piperaceae
 Used part of the plant :  Underground stem, root, and fruits.
 Identification:  swollen nodes with adventitious roots or leisions, Stem pieces light brown colored with peculiar pungent smell, bitter in taste. When put on the tounge to taste it causes numbness of the tounge. Dried fruits are black in color , aromatic, and pungent.
Chemical constituents: Both root and fruit contain alkaloids like piperine, piperidine piperlonguminine.
Fruits contains volatile oil and crystalline alkaloids, piperine 6%,piperettine, and a resin.Other chemicals are triacontane, dihydrostigmasterol and glycosides.
Uses:Piper longum is widely used in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine particularly for diseases of respiratory tract most of them includes cough, bronchitis, asthma etc. Long pepper is locally applied to counter-irritant and act as analgesic for muscular pains and inflammation.It is a good rejuvenator (Rasayana)
Piper longum is widely used as a carminative. aromatic, stimulant, good for the teatment of constipation,  gonorrhea, paralysis of the tongue, advised in diarrhea , cholera, Chronic Malaria, and Viral hepatitis.It  stimulates the appetite and it dispels gas from the intestines.An infusion of Piper Longum root is used after birth to induce the expulsion of the placenta. It is used as sedative in insomnia and epilepsy.పిప్ప ళ్ళను శ్వాస కొస వ్యాధుల దగ్గు జలుబు  నివారణకు నయం చేయుటకు, కండరాల నొప్పుల ను తగ్గించేందుకు, విరేచనాల ను నయం చేసేందుకు సుఖ విరేచన కారి గా, ఆకలిని పెంచుటకు, సువాసనకు వాడతారు.


Terminalia chebula
Dried fruits of Terminalia chebula కరక్కాయFy: Combretaceae
 Used plant part:   Dried Fruits .
Identification: Dried fruits are brown colored, 2-4cm long 1.5 to 2.5 broad, hard stony, 5-6 longitudinal ribs. Bitter and astringent in taste, no odour.
Chemical constituents:Contain astringent substances - tannic acid, Chebulinic acid,and  gallic acid, etc. Resin and a purgative principle - anthraquinone and sennoside are also present.During maturation tannin decreases and acidity increases.
Uses: In combination with Phyllanthus emblica (Amla) and Terminalia bellerica (Tani) (త్రిఫల ) is used as a laxative .It has digestive, anti-inflammatory, anthelmentic,  aphrodisiac and restorative properties. It is additionally beneficial in flatulence, constipation, piles, cough and colds. Fruit contains a constituent which has antibacterial and antifungal activity. It  also inhibits growth of E.coli, the most common organism responsible for urinary tract infection. The fruit pulp exhibits laxative properties. కరక్కాయను సుఖ విరేచన కారిగా , సూక్ష్మ జీవ నాశన కారి గా , జీర్ణ కోశము లో వచ్చే వాపు ల నివారణ కు మూల శంక నివారణ కు వాడతారు.    


Aloe vera

Aloe vera  కలబంద Fy: Liliaceae
 Part used: Juice from leaves
Identification: Vigorous concentration followed by quick cooling result in transparent brittle product liucid aloes.Slow concentration with gradual cooling results in opaque mass called livery aloes.Dried pulp is bitter unpleasant in odour.
Chemical constituents: The important constituents are three Aloins, Barbaloin  BetaBarbaloin and Isobarbaloin (-glycosides), Other constituents are amorphous Aloin, resin and Aloe-emodin. A mild purgative, sooths skin, Acts as a mild antimicrobial (aloin an Anthraquinone derivatives is irritative and purgative.
 Indian Aloe gel contains 90% of water and aloin.
Uses: Juice is considered as valuable remedy for piles, skin diseases, gynic problems in women.
Asrtingent, and cosmetic.Antispasmodic.చర్మ కేశ సం రక్ష ణ లో ఉపయోగ పడును. గర్భ కోశ సంబంద వ్యాదుల నివారణ లో, వాపు నివారిణి గా, ముసాంబరా న్ని దోమల నివారణ కు పొగ వేస్తారు.
The inner fleshy portion of leaf is taken as a health drink.ఆకు లో పారదర్శక రుచి లేని గుజ్జును ఆరోగ్యా న్ని చ్చే పానీయం గా వాడుతున్నారు.
Dried pulp is musambaram
Hair tonic and applied on painful inflamations.

Curcuma longa
                               
Rhizomes of  Curcuma longa పసుపు Fy: Zingeberaceae
 Parts Used: Underground stems - Rhizome. Boiled rhizomes are dried and used to make powder.
Identification: Main rhizome is known as Bulb and branches are known as fingers. Rhizomes are yellow in color , wrinkled and bears circular scars or with folds. Rhizomes are pungent and bitter in taste.
Chemical constituents: Turmeric contains up to 5%essential (aromatic) oils and up to 3%curcumin, a polyphenol.
It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.I. 75300, or Natural Yellow 3%
The systematic chemical name is (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) -1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione.
Uses: A readily available antiseptic for cuts, burns and bruises. It is also used as an antibacterial agent.
Curcumin is an an anti-inflammatory agent, and remedy for gastrointestinal discomfort associated with irritable bowel syndrome, and other digestive disorders. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer’s disease,cancer, arthritis and liver disorders. పసుపు అన్ని రకాల సూక్ష్మజీవ నాశకము. శ్వాస సంబంధ రుగ్మత ల లో పని చేస్తుంది. వాపుఅలను తగ్గిస్తుంది. చర్మ సం రక్ష ణ   లోఉపయోగ పడుతుంది. సహజ వర్ణ ద్రవ్యము. కాన్సరు వ్యాధి నివారణ లో కూడా   ఉపయోగ పడుతుంది.
The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. The curcumin/ polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products.
Piperin improves the absorption of turmeric It is anti inflamatory, anti bacterial anti fungal
Withania somnifera
Twig of  Withania somnifera అశ్వగంధ లేక పెన్నేరు గడ్డ Fy: Solanaceae
Part used: The root,  It smells like the urine of a Horse. Roots are brown in color. unbranched, conical shaped, smooth with irregular fracture, pungent  smell, bitter in taste, the crown bears scars or dormant buds.
Active constituents :   The main constituents of ashwagandha root are alkaloids and steroidal lactones. Among the various alkaloids, withanine is the main constituent. The other alkaloids are somniferine, somnine, somniferinine, withananine, pseudo-withanine, tropine, pseudo-tropine, 3-a-gloyloxytropane, choline, cuscohygrine, isopelletierine, anaferine and anahydrine. Two acyl steryl glucoside viz. sitoindoside VII and sitoindoside VIII have been isolated from root. The leaves contain steroidal lactones, which are commonly called withanolides. The withanolides have C28 steroidal nucleus with C9 side chain, having six membered lactone ring.
Uses: In Ayurveda ashwaganda is considered a rasayana herb. This herb is also considered an adaptogen which is an herb that works to normalize physiological function, working on the HPA axis and the neuroendocrine system. In Ayurveda, the fresh roots are sometimes boiled in milk, prior to drying, in order to leach out undesirable constituents. పేరు లేని రోగానికి పెన్నేరు గడ్డ.
The root powder is used as sedative and tranquiliser. It is antispasmodic. Used to prevent asthma and to contol bleeding during abortions.It is aphrodisiac. In the treatment of  hiccups, rheumatism, dropsy and gynic disorders.బలవర్ధకం గా , నిద్ర ను కలిగించేందుకు , కండరాలు బిగుసుకు పోకుండా , కీళ్ళనొప్పులకు , వాపు లకు ఔషధం గా ఉపయోగిస్తారు..  
Rauwolfia serpentina
Twig of  Rauwolfia serpentina సర్పగంద  Fy: Apocyanaceae
 IUCN has notified this species as endangered in 2008 list
Useful part: Root.
Identification: Root thickness 1-3 Cm, 20-25 long, greyish-yellow or ligtht brown in color, bark with wrinckles and with irregular fractures, bitter to taste, and odour less.In transfer section bark is 2-6 mm in thickness, latex is brown, cork contain calcium oxalate crystals and stone cells/ sclerides are absent.
Chemical constituents: Rauvolfia serpentina, or Indian Snakeroot or Sarpagandha, contains a number of bioactive chemicals, including ajmaline, deserpidine, rescinnamine, serpentinine, and yohimbine.
Alkaloid content is more in the bark than the wood. The alkaloids are grouped into 3 categoris.
1. General or nonspecific alkloids: ajmaline,serpentinine.
2.Alkaloids that are effective on Adrinalin glands.Rauwolfin, sarpagin, ajmalicin
3.Alkaloids that are effective on central nervous system: Reserpine, deserpidine.
Uses: Reserpine is an alkaloid first isolated from R. serpentina was widely used as an antihypertensive drug and tranquiliser. The extact of the root is given to patients suffering from psychological depression, and anxiety .(ఉన్మాదాన్ని తగ్గించ డానికి)  Tribals used it as an antidote  against bites of reptiles .  (పాము కాటుకు విరుగుడు గా )
For the treatment of urinary tract diseases.
Phyllanthus amaras
Phyllanthus amaras  నేల ఉసిరి  Fy: Euphorbiaceae
 Useful part:Entire plant.
 Identification: 10-60 cm high annual herb. Stem angular with dwarf branches, bitter to taste. leaves small elliptic oblong, flowers in the axils of leaves. fruit small and depressed globose. seeds brown and triangular.The juice from the plant is black in color.
Chemical constituents: Phyllanthine,hypophyllanthin, niranthin, and  glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, ellagitannins, and phenylpropanoids found in the leaf, stem, and root of the plant. Common lipids, sterols, and flavonols also occur in the plant.
Uses: The infusion of the plant is used  for dissolving kidney stones and gallstones (active stones and as a preventative) Used for the treatment of dropsy పిత్తాశయం లో,మూత్ర  పిండాలలో రాళ్ళు ఏర్పడకుండా , వున్న వాటిని కరిగించేందుకు , కామెర్ల నివారణ, నయం చేయుటకు, మధుమేహ నివారణ కు రక్తం లో కొలెస్ట్రాల్ తగ్గించేందుకు. 
2. to tone, balance, strengthen, detoxify and protect the liver (and to balance liver enzymes) It has antiviral properties .Used for the treatment of jaundice. Used to reduce high cholesterol levels, and for the treatment of diabetes. It is also used as tonic.

Phyllanthus emblica
Fruits of  Phyllanthus emblica  ఉసిరి Fy: Euphorbiaceae
 Useful part: Fresh or dried fruits.
Identification: The tree is small to medium sized, reaching 8 to 18 m in height, with a crooked trunk and spreading branches. The branchlets are glabrous or finely pubescent, 10-20 cm long, usually deciduous; the leaves simple, subsessile and closely set along branchlets, light green, resembling pinnate leaves. The flowers are greenish-yellow. The fruit is nearly spherical, light greenish yellow, quite smooth and hard on appearance, with 6 vertical stripes or furrows.Edible Sour and astringent.
Chemical constituents: contain high amounts of ascorbic acid(vitamin C)500mg/100gms; contains high density of tannins 5%, phyllemblin, fruit also contains flavonoids and gallic acid.higher amounts of Ca fe, and phosphorus salts.
Medicinal Uses: :It is diuretic, laxative, it is a component of Thriphala.(త్రిఫల ) It is used as rasayana (rejuvinator). To enhance digestion, to reduce constipation , antipyretic, ), reduce cough , to alleviate asthma , to stimulate hair growth ,  shampoos and hair oil tha contain amla extract are traditionally believed to nourish the hair and scalp and prevent premature grey hair.It is useful in anaemia and Jaundice.  రక్త వృద్ది కి, మెరుగైన జీర్ణ క్రియ కు , కామెర్ల వ్యాధి నయం చేయుటకు వెంట్రుకల పెరుగుదల తెల్ల బడ కుండా ఉండుటకు  వాడతారు. It is used in the treatment of scurvy.

Bacopa monnieri
Bacopa monnieri జల బ్రాహ్మిFy: Scrophulariaceae.  
 Useful part; Whole plant.
Identification: It is found in aquatic habitats. a perennial creeper. succulent herb, simple leaves in opposite phyllotaxy, when crushed leaves exhibit a characteristic odour. Flowers are white or lavender colored.
Chemical components: Main chemical components are alkaloids,brahmine,and herpestine; saponins, bacosideA and bacosideB, and bacopasides, monnierin, stigma sterol and betulic acid.
Medicinal uses:  Bacopa improves intellect, consciousness, and mental activity -as memory booster. Bacopa calms the mind and promotes relaxation.- to reduce  Stress, Anxiety and Depression.
Bacopa raises protein synthesis and activity in brain cells.  improves memory, mental clarity and longevity.-a nerve tonic. జ్ఞాపక శక్తి వృద్ది పరచు కొనుటకు , నరాల బలమున కై ఉపయోగింప బడుతున్నది.  
1. Bacosides A enhances the body’s antioxidant defenses by increaseing superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities.
2. They maintain the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondrial membrane by inhibiting excessive lipid peroxidation & creatine kinase, improving the activities of ATPases and maintaining ionic equilibrium
Stabilize mast cells and possess anti-inflammatory activity .It is used to treat skin diseases, leprosy, leucoderma, eczema and psoriasis. It is used in treatment of hoarseness, asthma, bronchitis and ulcer.It is used in inflammations, tumor, splenomegaly and general debility.
Cissus quadrangularis నల్లేరు 

Plant name: Cissus Quadrangularis నల్లేరు
Family: Vitaceae
Useful part: Stems and leaves లేత కాండము, ఆకులు
Identification: It is found in dry habits as green leafy or leafless creeper with jointed 4-angled fleshy stems.
Chemical components: Main chemical component is quadrangularin A, It contains carotenoids, triterpenoids, ascorbic acid and mucilage.
Medicinal uses: Since long times it has been used to strengthen bone density, to heal bone fractures, tendon and joint injuries. It is also helpful in treating gastric ulcers. It is widely used by athletes for healing and strengthening joints and bones.
నల్లేరు కాడలను ఎముక బలాన్ని వృద్ధి చేయడానికి ,  కీళ్ల నొప్పి, జీర్ణాశయం లో అల్సర్ లు  తగ్గించడానికి వాడతారు. విరిగిన ఎముకలు త్వరితంగా అతుక్కోవడానికి  ఆయుర్వేద వైద్య విధానంలో  వాడతారు.    


17 comments:

  1. Madam
    U r work on Medicinal plants is excellent. The notes and pictures r very useful for Second year B.Sc students

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  2. Madam,
    I found the pictures very useful in finding useful herbs which are found around us.

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  3. meeru pondhuparichina / krodikarinchina vishayalu chala amogamu. mee kaarya dakshataku namasumanjalulu.

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